Hey Doc,How do you know when a burn should be seen by a doctor? My hiking pal stumbled into a campfire over the weekend while camping in the High Country. —Burned in Boone———————————————————————————Burned in Boone,It depends on the type of burn: chemical, electrical, or fire. If you’ve been burned by fire, the following will pointers will be helpful.Burns are graded by increasing severity from first degree to third degree. The degree of burn is directly related to the depth of skin involved.In general, burns that have one or more of the following characteristics need to be seen immediately by a medical expert:– Loss of sensation in or around the burn area– Involvement of the face, hands, feet, genitalia area or over joints– Inhalation burns– chemical and electrical burns– burns that are greater in size than the same person’s one palm– if the burn is white or black in color– burns that encircle an areaFor initial treatment of fire burns, pour cool water over the area for at least 10 minutes. Do not apply ice as this may cause further wound damage. If jewelry or clothing is on the affected limb then remove it promptly. Aside from vaseline and aloe being applied to a sunburn (which is a classic first degree burn), no oils or topical creams including steroids should be used on a burn as they can interrupt wound healing. Resist rupturing blisters unless you see gross puss; rather allow the blister to come apart naturally. Cover fresh burns with wet to dry dressings.Disclaimer: Ask the Doc is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical treatment.
The Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development recognized Jackson Kayak for its excellence in engaging in global trade. Jackson Kayak Founder and President Eric Jackson accepted the award on Nov. 14, during an Annual Governor’s Conference on Economic and Community Development luncheon.“Tennessee’s economy is more connected to the global economy than ever before, and I congratulate our GATE Award winners on their business acumen and their aggressive approach to global markets that has allowed them to tap new markets and maintain international competitiveness,” said Bill Hagerty, Tennessee Economic and Community Development Commissioner.Jackson Kayak was joined at the recognition ceremony by fellow outdoor industry performance sock manufacturer Swiftwick and iconic guitar maker Gibson. All three companies are located in or near Nashville. Gibson is in Nashville, Swiftwick is in the Nashville suburb of Brentwood and Jackson Kayak is in Sparta, just 90 miles east of Nashville.“Jackson Kayak is honored to receive this award and share the stage with such awesome companies as Swiftwick and Gibson,” said Jackson Kayak founder and president, Eric Jackson. “Tennessee’s progressive approach to economic development has helped Jackson Kayak grow to its top position in sales and reputation around the world. In addition to being a great state to do business in, White County is a wonderful place to call home.”Within just two years of its first kayak sale in 2004, Jackson Kayak established sales bulkheads on five continents. Since then, the company has made many more distributor partnerships in countries around Europe, Asia and South America. The company most recently began exporting to Russia and China.In 2013, Tennessee based companies tallied $32.3 billion worth of goods and services exported in 2013 making Tennessee tenth among all US states in export volume. Tennessee was named “2013 State of the Year” for economic development by Business Facilities magazine. The Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development’s mission is to develop strategies that help make Tennessee the No. 1 location in the Southeast for high quality jobs. The department seeks to attract new corporate investment in Tennessee and works with Tennessee companies to facilitate expansion and economic growth. Find them on the web: tn.gov/ecd.Founded in 2003, family owned and operated Jackson Kayak is the world’s leading maker of whitewater and fishing kayaks. Other user-design inspired products include touring kayaks, coolers and other paddling accessories. All Jackson Kayak products are proudly made in the USA with exclusively American made parts, people and manufacturing partners. For more info, visit the company online at http://jacksonkayak.com or like them on Facebook at facebook.com/jacksonkayak.
Nothing says fall like loading up the car or truck with your favorite camping gear and heading to the nearest forest road or family campsite. Whether you’re heading out for a weekend of hiking, mountain biking, fly fishing, or whatever kind of outdoor activitiy you can find within the short drive of a well-established base camp, dust off the old checklist and make sure a handful of these car camping essentials find their way into your inventory of essential gear items.1. Big Agnes Tensleep Station 6I’m all for lightweight gear and minimalism when backpacking, but when I’m car camping I like a little extra space in my tent. The Big Agnes Tensleep Station 6 is the ideal car camping tent because it provides more than adequate space and comfort, wether its being used by a couple with a dog or a family of six. And, because its a Big Agnes product, it pops up with ease and provides maximum protection from the elements.2. Everest Camp ChefYou’ll be hard pressed to find a better car camping cook stove than the Everest from Camp Chef. The two 20,000 BTU burners allow it to boil water quickly and cook food almost as evenly as your home stove. Throw in the protective windscreen, which makes for easy cooking in less than ideal conditions, and its extreme portability, and you’ve got the only car camping cook stove you’ll ever need. 3. Thermacell Scout Mosquito Repeller Camp LanternIf you’re anything like me you get tired of slathering on oily, chemical-laden topical mosquito repellent. While DEET usually keeps the bugs off, who knows what it’s actually doing to you once absorbed through the skin. Enter the Thermacell Scout Mosquito Repeller Camp Lantern. Like other Thermacell products, this thing imposes a 15 X 15 foot no fly zone on mosquitos, biting flies and other types of winged insect that can turn your pleasant evening around the camp fire into an itchy nightmare. It does so by vaporizing a natural occurring, insect-repelling chemical found in common Chrysanthemums. Oh, and there’s also that added benefit of providing 220 lumens of bright light for hours on end. This thing is a win-win. 4. Goal Zero Yeti 150 Solar GeneratorWhen you’re posted up at a primitive site, a little back up power can become a real luxury. No company is better at providing that luxury than Goal Zero with their award winning solar panels and chargeable, eco-firendly generators. If you’re looking to break into the world of fume free generators, the Yeti 150 is the perfect place to start. It has the battery capacity to re-charge a typical smart phone over 15 times or a laptop twice. The interface includes an LCD display that shows remaining battery life as well as a USB port, an AC outlet and a 9V port. 5. Wacaco MinipressoWho says you can’t have gourmet coffee at the campite? Wacaco has shattered that myth with the brilliantly engineered and super affordable Minipresso. This hand pump espresso maker produces a velvety and flavorful shot of espresso with ease and simplicity every time.6. Maven B.3 BinocularsIf you’re camping in an area where wildlife sightings are common, bring along a pair quality binos for some added entertainment. The B.3 binoculars from Maven are some of the best 6X magnification binoculars on the market right now. Throw in the unconditional lifetime warranty, and you’ve got some top notch glass that will last you a lifetime. Not only do they work exceedingly well in low light conditions, but they offer a level of clarity and focus that is hard to find at similar price points. Wether you’re scoping out a herd of elk in the Cataloochee Valley or watching a bald eagle soar high above the Tuckaseegee River, the Maven B.3’s will magnify the experience tenfold.7. Gerber Freescape Camp Kitchen KitA good knife set at the campsite is an absolute must, and they don’t get much better than the Freescape Camp Kitchen Kit from Gerber. The handy thing about this setup, aside from the high quality knives that the Gerber name is known for, is the way they managed to incorporate a cutting board and a sharpener into a compact design that has room for additional utensils. This will become an indispensable tool in your car camping inventory.8. Exped Mega Mat10 or SIM Comfort Duo 7.5Nothing contributes to the overall enjoyment of a car camping adventure like a good night’s sleep. You may get away with skimping in other departments, but if you don’t pack appropriate bedding you could be in for a long, uncomfortable trip. Avoid that scenario with the Mega Mat10 or the SIM Comfort Duo 7.5 from Exped. This Swiss company has broken the camping mat game down to a science, and as a result, they are the proud makers of the best car camping mats available today. If you’re sleeping solo go for the Mega Mat10—its more comfortable than most people’s home beds—but if you’re shacking up with a significant other , he Sim Comfort Duo 7.5 is impossible to beat. 9. Fiskars X11 Splitting AxeWhen you’re setting up in remote areas for days on end and fire is your primary source of heat, a good splitting ax becomes an absolute must, and no brand engineers axes better than Fiskars. That’s probably because this Finnish company has been creating useful yard and outdoor products for over 360 years. That’s right, they started forging axes some 120 years before the United States became a formally recognized nation. In fact, legend has it that George Washington chopped down his first cherry with an early model Fiskars splitting ax. Did I just make that story up? Absolutely, but that shouldn’t deter you purchasing one of these extremely handy tools before embarking on your next multi-day, car camping adventure. 10. Orion 45 CoolerCar Camping doesn’t really work with a good cooler. Luckily, we live the golden age of ice chests, and there’s even a locally made option for those living in and around the southern Appalachians. Features of the Orion 45 include six tie-down points, four bottle openers, low profile camping latches, a variety of different color options, and a highly functional tray system. Not to mention, it holds ice for days on end.Related:
Hi! My name is Jack and I am a 9 ½ year old border collie and I am a trail runner. Like most humans, I found my way onto trail by luck and accident, in need for something to fill the time. Even though I was born and raised on a sheep farm and trained by the best, I didn’t care for it. I bounced around a lot between farms, anxiety growing at every stop. My people started driving me to trails to run. So I am a certified trail runner dog now. Okay, first trail is one that is close to home for us but it’s Awesome!!!! Doc’s tips for trail running with your dog Owners hoped I would take to their sheep, but I never did. Don’t force it. Just like I didn’t take to sheep herding as my breed is suppose to, but I love to trail run and hike. They pull my harness out and I get excited and tell them I want to go by wagging my tail and barking. Start slow on wide paths so your human and the dog can get the feel of running and hiking with a leash. Invest in a harness; they can control me better in one. Make sure it fits properly. My favorite is the Ruffwear Front Range Harness Make sure your paw-rents carry water or the route has plenty of spots for you to drink at. Stay healthy with proper vaccinations for the outdoors and flea and tick preventative. Most of this section is exposed and it can get hot during the summer. I get excited when we get to the communication tower that is along the trail. That means the last of the cattle cross-over ladders and heading back into the hardwood forest with plenty of water stops for me. I don’t like those wooden ladders and either fight to go under them or have to be picked up and moved over them. They can treacherous then. After the boulder field, we come to the trail intersection with the fire road. We turn left and head down the gorge. This part follows the creek and has great views of the little cascades with the trail. There is one large white house half way down that is privately owned. It is hard to believe that at one time this little gorge was home to over 30 families. I would live there too because it’s pretty and a great place to run and hike. After a steady decline of about 2 miles we make it back to the parking area. Really, I love them all. I just want to run all of them. They’re all great. But here are some of the ones I have run on. So find a furry friend and get out there! Doc is veterinarian and he keeps me healthy. We will share some tips on trail running with your pooch as well. I get mad when we don’t leave in the morning to go run. I now have 2 younger border collie half sisters, I am told that I am responsible for training them on how to run on trail. Geez, they are a handful. So that’s my story and how I ended up loving trail running. I am here to give you my trail reviews. The trails I love. Hope to see you and your human out there. Follow my adventures on Instagram @pawsaroundthepeninsula Jack’s Trail Review February 18, 2019 Rock Castle Gorge Loop; elevation ranges from 3572 at the top of the gorge to 1700 at the parking area off CC Camp Road (VA Rte 605) Blue Ridge Parkway; Rocky Knob National Recreation Area. The pasture section rolls up and down. There are some rock outcroppings and we pass one of the old AT shelters. This part of the trail was part of the original AT before it was relocated in the 1950s. There is a great view of the valley and Bull Mountain from the overlook just above the shelter. The second day I was at their house, they took me hiking up a mountain. I thought I was going to die! I didn’t know I was so out of shape. But it was so much fun! I loved it! I wanted to do it again! We started running on the local rail trail. It was paved, but I was out there. Little by little, they would take me for running on the trail and other routes they said were safe from cars and other dogs. We start descending rather quickly after we cross the cattle fence. It’s about a 875 foot drop in elevation through hardwood forests and a really cool rock outcropping, known as Bare Rocks. It’s awesome and fun to to maneuver through the boulder field, except when the rocks are wet. Once we climb, the trail opens into the pasture that parallels the Blue Ridge Parkway. Doc says the views are great. I can only see the 3 feet off the ground, so I can see the gorge overlook views, but take his word that the Piedmont and countryside views are great Sometimes there are cows in the pastures. That’s a little scary since they are scared of me and act like they want to charge. The trail is narrow and steep, with rock outcroppings that I sometimes need help getting up and over. There are plenty of drinking pools for me as we cross creeks and runoff locations up the gorge. A few spots to look out into the gorge of hardwoods. It’s my favorite. Rock Castle Gorge Trail. It is a tough trail and definitely not a beginner trail for human or dog. The loop is 10.8 miles with steep climbing. We always start at the base of the gorge, off CC Camp road. The start of the trail here is a gated fire road, once around the gate, we immediately turn right onto the the single track. This follows along the creek for about a mile and then starts the heavy climbing. Over 1,000 feet in 3 miles. After a few years of taking it easy on a hobby farm in Virginia, I was given to some of their friends. I was concerned that this would be like all the other home changes, but my new paw-rents (Jonathan, who we call Doc, and Rebecca) were different, they went running.
End the day with dinner and a show in downtown. Craft beers and local wines pair well with American cuisine at Trungo’s, located on Loudoun Street. After dinner head over to Tally Ho, a 1930s movie theater that was renovated into a live music and theater venue. It offers regular performances and acts in genres across the board. See a list of upcoming shows at tallyhotheater.com. Get some more steps in for the day as you explore the picturesque streets of historic Leesburg. With multiple parking options, including free parking at Liberty Street Lot, access to downtown is quite easy. Grab a mid-day bite at Señor Ramon Taqueria where the owners have brought the authentic taste of Mexican street food to this quaint little town. Spend the rest of the afternoon sipping cocktails and smashing golf balls at Top Golf’s Ashburn location, just a short drive from downtown Leesburg. Giant targets cover the driving range and microchipped golf balls allow you to put a special spin on this classic game. With a full dining and drinking menu, heated bays, and comfortable seating, Top Golf is a destination fit for an afternoon full of fun. Hotels: Sneak back into downtown for a savory midafternoon snack from Mom’s Apple Pie Bakery where the butter pecan apple crumble pie is to die for. After enjoying a yummy slice, pop right across the street to check out the historic Marshall House, which was home to prominent U.S. Army General and statesmen George C. Marshall from 1941 to his death in 1959. Homewood Suites by Hilton Only 10 minutes from downtown Leesburg, the Lansdowne Resort is perfect for the traveler looking to add some luxury to their getaway. They have farm to table dinning, miles of hiking and biking trails, and sprawling views of the Potomac River. Photo by: Famartin Day Two Downtown Leesburg offers a multiplicity of dining options. Check out Lightfoot on North King Street for an elegant evening of classic American food. Take advantage of your proximity to the Atlantic by heading over to King Street Oyster Bar, located on South King Street, where fresh seafood meets quality service for a great meal. From breakfast, head out to the Red Rock Wilderness Overlook Park to burn off the morning’s calories on the numerous trails throughout the park. A number of historic building and informational plaques greet you in the well-maintained and sizeable parking lot. From there, all the trails break away from the same parking lot and all link back up at multiple spots that overlook a wide, meandering section of the Potomac River. A full loop of the park on the white-marked trail will put just over a mile of steps under your feet, although it is possible to make it out to the overlooks with less than a half a mile of walking. Be sure to stay on trail as the park is home to a number of native, wild plants and animals. Day One Where to stay: Downtown Leesburg has ample options to start your day with a good cup of joe and a healthy breakfast but it’s hard to top the delicious, local food from Cowbell Kitchen. Located on East Market Street in downtown, Cowbell Kitchen works with farmers from Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. to create a made from scratch menu, which changes each week based on what’s available from local producers. Whether in a private cabin or a campsite along the Potomac, the Harpers Ferry Adventure Center provides a relaxing environment for both seasoned outdoor aficionados and those trying to escape the city for a calm weekend. Each campsite features a picnic table, grill and fire pit and there are on site bathhouses and a small market. Comfort Suites (ask about their bike package) Start Day Two with a peaceful walk or bike ride through the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Regional Park (W & OD). The parks paved trail runs nearly 45 miles from Shirlington to Purcellville and covers both urban spaces and the stunning Virginia countryside. The W&OD Park also offers a 32-mile horse trail that is sure to keep any equestrian occupied. There are a number of different access points along the 45-mile trail, some of which are actual parking lots while others are roadside pull-offs. Check the Northern Virginia Parks website for more information. Lansdowne Resort and Spa A fancy burger from Melt Gourmet Cheeseburgers, located on East Market Street, should hold you over as you take a casual stroll through Morven Park, a historic 1,000-acre park just outside of Leesburg. The park features walking trails, beautiful gardens and a grand mansion that was formerly home to Virginia governor Westmoreland Davis. The park does offer tours of its multiple museums but only on Saturday and Sunday. Ticket prices can be found at morvenpark.org. In Virginia’s northern corner, with the beautiful banks of the Potomac River to the north and east, and the West Virginia state line to the west, is historic Loudoun County. Home to roughly 400,000 Virginians, Loudoun County has plenty to entertain outdoor enthusiasts, history lovers and wine connoisseurs alike. Any wine lovers out there? If so, you’ve found yourself in the right spot. Loudoun County, which is home to 40 plus different vineyards and tasting rooms, is often referred to as “D.C.’s Wine Country”. Check out visitloudoun.org for a full list of wineries and their descriptions. Harpers Ferry Adventure Center
By Dialogo April 16, 2010 What we want to know is what kind of substances and drugs can stimulate the WNT pathway to promote the growth of follicles and solve the baldness problem. There are no known substances or drugs that can block the gene that causes baldness or silence it through epigenetic substances. The WNT pathway is one that may be linked to prostate cancer. Researchers have identified a new gene involved in hair growth, a discovery that may open the way to future treatments for male-pattern baldness and other forms of hair loss, according to a study published in the journal Nature. The team, led by Angela Christiano (Columbia University, United States), identified a gene called APCDD1 that causes a rare form of hair loss, hereditary hypotrichosis simplex. This disease is the result of hair-follicle miniaturization, a process also observed in male-pattern baldness: individual hairs are increasingly thinner. “The identification of this gene underlying hereditary hypotrichosis simplex has afforded us an opportunity to gain insight into the process of hair-follicle miniaturization, which is most commonly observed in male-pattern hair loss,” Angela Christiano indicated. Nevertheless, “it is important to note that while these two conditions share the same physiologic process, the gene we discovered for hereditary hypotrichosis does not explain the complex process of male-pattern baldness,” she added. The identification of the APCDD1 gene was possible thanks to the analysis of the genetic data of a number of Pakistani and Italian families who carry the gene that causes hereditary hypotrichosis simplex. The researchers discovered a mutation in the APCDD1 gene, located in a region of chromosome 18, which has been suggested by previous studies to be involved in other forms of hair loss. The researchers showed that the APCDD1 gene inhibits a cellular signaling pathway known as Wnt, the role of which in the control of hair growth has been demonstrated in mice. “These findings suggest that manipulating the Wnt pathway may have an effect on hair-follicle growth – for the first time, in humans,” Angela Christiano declared.
The ELN had rejected those demands, but it has said previously it would be willing to release the hostage, Canadian mining engineer Jernoc Wobert, soon. The ELN, or the National Liberation Army, has on numerous occasions expressed interest in negotiating with the government. Wobert, 47, was abducted by ELN rebels in January along with two Peruvians and three Colombians also working for Toronto-based Braeval Mining, which has been prospecting for gold and silver in northern Colombia. By Dialogo August 05, 2013 Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos said on August 1 he is willing to start peace talks with the leftist ELN rebels as soon as they release a Canadian hostage, held since January. Santos had previously insisted any talks would be conditional on the group releasing hostages and abandoning the practice of kidnapping in general. The South Americans were released a month later, but the ELN, the smaller of Colombia’s two leftist rebel groups, with about 2,000 fighters, has held onto the Canadian. This week, the rebels said the release was “closer”, after Wobert’s employer, Braeval Mining, announced it was giving up its mining rights in Colombia because of “unfavorable market conditions, and plans to refocus its efforts on its other projects.” The guerrilla group in recent years has targeted Colombia’s oil and mining industries, kidnapping workers and blowing up installations.
For the officer, this was one of the most valuable professional and personal experiences. “I feel so honored to be a female service member, a Blue Helmet, and even more to have the Brazilian flag on my sleeve. Countless times I’ve been stopped on the streets, [at the] airport, [in a] cafe and heard, ‘Thank you, Brazil!’ I have so many pictures and memories that have a special place in my heart,” she said. Cmdr. Carla Daniel believes the experience in Lebanon supports her current role with DPKO, since knowledge of peacekeeping missions encompasses practice and theory. “When I have to ask for information or give guidance, I know what it’s all about,” she said. Her completion of the UN Female Senior Police Officer Command Development course in South Africa in 2015 was also a decisive factor for her training. UN Security Council Resolution 1990 established UNISFA on June 27, 2011. The mission’s main focus is to promote dialogue between countries of the region and, above all, provide security for Abyei, guaranteeing civilian protection and facilitating the provision of humanitarian aid. In addition, service members monitor the region’s demilitarization efforts. By Taciana Moury/Diálogo May 09, 2018 Women continue to be trailblazers in the Brazilian Navy. For the first time, a female officer took on a position in the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in New York. Brazilian Navy Commander Carla Cristina Daniel Bastos Peixoto serves as a desk officer for the Current Military Operations Service (CMOS) of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), a region disputed between Sudan and South Sudan. She is the liaison between UNISFA, the Office of Military Affairs, and the troop contributing country, which, in this case, is Ethiopia. According to information from the UN, UNISFA has a total of 4,841 professionals responsible for local security, including 4,791 service members and 50 police officers. UNISFA also receives support from civil institutions. Since 2011 UNISFA’s presence greatly improved the relationship between Abyei’s rival tribes, the Mysseria and Ngok Dinka, as well as their quality of life, said Cmdr. Carla Daniel. Trailblazer in Lebanon The commander is proud to be the first Brazilian female service member to hold a position in DPKO, even though it requires a lot of responsibility. “To be a pioneer in any activity is already something that attracts a little more attention from others. Additionally, if this doesn’t go well, I could close the doors for other women or slow down the process,” Cmdr. Carla Daniel said. Cmdr. Carla Daniel stressed the importance of an increased female presence in areas of conflict and peacekeeping missions. For her, the violence against women became a weapon of war because it destabilizes the communities she works with, which resonates with her as a woman. “I once heard a former peacekeeping force commander say that it was more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier in a region of conflict, hence the importance of female service members in areas of conflict who support, welcome, and serve as a support system for those who suffer,” Cmdr. Carla Daniel said. The officer has been a pioneer throughout her career. In 2014, Cmdr. Carla Daniel was the first woman to deploy with UNIFIL’s MTF as an assistant for the force commander, a Brazilian admiral. At the time, she was in charge of MTF staff and served as a civil-military coordination officer for activities in support of the local population. Cmdr. Carla Daniel joined the Brazilian Navy in 1998 as a midshipman. She worked primarily in communications. She was a public relations assistant at the Marine Corps General Command in Rio de Janeiro and at the 2nd Naval District Command in Salvador, Bahia. In Brasília, she worked in the Navy’s Public Affairs Office and the Presidential Security Cabinet. She then went to Lebanon in 2014, where she worked on UNIFIL’s Maritime Task Force (MTF). When she returned to Brazil in 2015, Cmdr. Carla Daniel took on responsibilities for the 1st Naval District Command’s Public Affairs Office in Rio de Janeiro. Her mission at DPKO started in December 2017 and will last for two years, under a temporary request. She is deployed in CMOS, which falls under the Office of Military Affairs which in the UN hierarchy. “Activities range from daily monitoring of the mission’s military actions, preparation of a daily situation report intended for DPKO’s military leadership, to counseling and advising military leadership in New York about operational aspects of UNISFA,” she explained. “It was an unforgettable experience. MTF’s importance for security on the Lebanese coast and, consequently, its economic stability is very well known. I never felt so much joy in showing that I’m Brazilian. I’m of Lebanese descent, and this experience makes an incredible difference for the Brazilian-Lebanese female community, with whom I keep close contact. I always get emotional when I talk about this,” Cmdr. Carla Daniel related. Importance of women in peacekeeping missions The officer met the position’s requirements: rank of lieutenant colonel/commander, degree in liberal arts, knowledge of English and other languages, previous participation in a peacekeeping mission, and completion of all career courses. “I graduated in Communications with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Journalism, and I served in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL),” Cmdr. Carla Daniel said. “Selected candidates have to take a written test on UN issues in English. Those who pass that phase take an oral English test based on competency and the institution’s primary values.” The United Nations made several efforts to increase female participation in missions but the increase, she said, isn’t happening as quickly because a military career requires preparation, time or a promotion for the position. In mid-July, female security forces will have the opportunity to earn additional knowledge. The Female Senior Police Officer Command Development course that targets senior military police officers, will take place in Brazil from July 10th to 16th in the city of Belém, in the state of Pará, and will include representatives from Latin America and the Caribbean.
By Gonzalo Silva Infante/Diálogo May 23, 2018 In the depths of the ocean off the coast of Peru, submarines navigate slowly, avoiding collisions, and evading pursuing aircraft. In the sky, aircraft crews closely monitor radars and acoustic data. Once they confirm targets locations, missiles are launched as part of the simulated exercise. The training is part of the binational Silent Forces Exercise (SIFOREX), conducted between the Peruvian Navy and the U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command (NAVSO) since 2001. SIFOREX 2018, which took place April 16th–24th off the Pacific coast of Callao, Peru, was the first to include a third naval force: the Colombian National Navy. The biannual naval exercise promotes the development of anti-submarine warfare strategies and tactics involving diesel-electric submarines and provides a unique opportunity for crews to consolidate their knowledge. The exercise also strengthens bonds of friendship between participating naval forces, whether actively or as observers. The Brazilian and Argentine Navies took part as observers during SIFOREX 2018. “SIFOREX had greater significance and value this year  for a few reasons. First, we opened our doors to other partner navies, allowing them to come and train along with us,” Peruvian Navy Captain Antonio Vildoso Concha, head of Operations of the Pacific Operations General Command, told Diálogo. “Second, anti-submarine warfare exercises are always worthwhile, both for us and for the U.S., because they allow us to train people and test equipment. Interoperability is always helpful.” Next generation equipment NAVSO participated with guided missile cruiser USS Lake Champlain, three Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft, and an MH-60 helicopter. Peru employed three submarines: the BAP Antofagasta, the BAP Pisagua, and the BAP Islay. For its first participation, Colombia deployed the submarine ARC Pijao S-28. “The United States brought P-8s, which are next generation aircraft,” Capt. Vildoso said. “The [plane’s] control over an area using sonobuoys is impressive. They normally bring just one. This time, they brought three. For a submariner in a limited area, knowing that there are three planes with sonobuoys is a challenge. It’s good training.” For U.S. Navy Captain Jen Ellinger, commander of the USS Lake Champlain, the challenging exercise was a success. “For me, as commander of a ship with these characteristics, it was a complex challenge because of how rough the Peruvian waters are and because of the professionalism of sailors navigating and operating in concert with other navies, which is the main goal of SIFOREX: interoperability.” Acoustic training The exercises consisted of familiarizing aircraft and submarine crews with sounds to identify the different platforms in their surroundings. The sound of helicopter rotors, for instance, may lead a submarine crew to carry out diving maneuvers. Under the complex underwater environment, submarines take advantage of temperature, salinity, currents, and other conditions at sea to evade sonobuoys—the sonar system aircraft use to detect them. For NAVSO members, the training is critical, since the U.S. Navy only has nuclear submarines, which are noisier. “SIFOREX allows U.S. Navy resources to conduct anti-submarine warfare exercises against non-U.S. submarines in foreign waters,” Commander Mark Yehl, exercise director for NAVSO’s Plans Directorate and organizer of SIFOREX 2018, told Diálogo. “All submarines are different, and each has unique capacities and characteristics. This opportunity is a great training exercise for our crews, and it also allows us to learn from our partner nations.” Search and evasion Participants also conducted search and evasion missions, during which the USS Champlain followed the submarines’ traces. Another mock scenario involved confrontation between submarines. The exercise concluded with missile launches and artillery fire. “It was seven days of navigation completely focused on anti-submarine warfare,” Capt. Vildoso said. “The last day consisted of artillery fire against a real target, which was a decommissioned ship.” Participants completed 99 percent of planned exercises, or more than 50 anti-submarine warfare exercises, Capt. Vildoso said. These exercises allowed naval forces to strike a balance between crew performance, training, and mutual learning. “[SIFOREX] is, first of all, an opportunity to establish lasting professional bonds with the Peruvian Navy and, this year, also with the Colombian [National] Navy,” Cmdr. Yehl said. “Secondly, SIFOREX is a great opportunity for U.S. Navy crews to train in anti-submarine warfare against experienced diesel submarine crews in their home waters, which gives the submarines a clear advantage. For the U.S. Navy, it was an honor and a privilege to participate in SIFOREX.”
By Andréa Barretto / Diálogo June 27, 2019 “The flow of Venezuelans stayed basically the same after the border reopened, as they were still coming to Brazil via alternative routes while it was closed. However, the path through the official border simplified the transit of those in search of refuge, as well as food and medicine, sold in Brazilian cities,” said Brazilian Army (EB, in Portuguese) Colonel Carla Beatriz Medeiros de Souza, chief of Public Affairs for Operation Shelter, a humanitarian logistics task force EB coordinates. Operation Shelter provides rapid response to Venezuelan migrants. The operation has triage stations and shelters in Pacaraima and Boa Vista cities, in Roraima, a Brazilian state that shares a 1,300-kilometer border with Venezuela. The Bolivarian National Guard (GNB, in Spanish) blocked Highway BR-174, connecting Brazil and Venezuela, on February 21, 2019. The border reopened to people and vehicles on May 10. The border closure, upon orders from Nicolás Maduro, was meant to stop the delivery of basic supplies to the Venezuelan people coming from a Brazilian humanitarian campaign in cooperation with the United States. Faced with their country’s increasing crisis, Venezuelans followed trails through the jungle around the blocked highway, putting their lives at risk. Reuters news agency reported that GNB soldiers extorted Venezuelans, charging the passage to alternative routes bound for Brazil at about $12 a head. “Wearing Venezuelan uniforms, they blatantly demand money, even to cross by foot. They are taking advantage of us,” said Yeral Garate, an immigrant Reuters interviewed. Continuous exit According to Operation Shelter, a daily average of 600 to 700 Venezuelans crossed into Brazil from January 2019, until the border closure. The numbers barely wavered during the official blockade since the “situation in Venezuela really forces people to leave the country,” said Allana Ferreira, from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Roraima. As of June 2019, the flow of Venezuelans crossing the Venezuela-Brazil border remains the same. In Pacaraima, Operation Shelter has a temporary shelter with a capacity of about 600 persons. There are 11 shelters in Boa Vista that can welcome about 6,000 people. All shelters are full.