Aug 18, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – Half a century ago, scientists reported evidence of some curious behavior by the immune system in humans and animals: If a host was exposed to an influenza virus and later encountered a variant strain of the same virus, the immune system responded to the second attack largely with the same weapons it used against the first one.Like an army still fighting by the tactics of the last war, the host immune system mostly produced antibodies matched to the first virus instead of the second, resulting in a less effective defense. With a nod to theology, this phenomenon was labeled “original antigenic sin.”Today, in the face of the pandemic H1N1 flu virus, many countries are preparing to launch H1N1 vaccination campaigns this fall. Millions of people are in groups recommended to receive both seasonal flu immunizations and H1N1 vaccinations. Seasonal flu vaccine—which contains an H1N1 component, distantly related to the novel H1N1 virus—will be available sooner in most places.This timing has caused some observers to wonder: If a person gets a seasonal flu shot and then an H1N1 dose a few weeks later, will original antigenic sin come into play and cause a poor response to the H1N1 vaccine?Nobody knows the answer for sure, but leading flu and immunization experts say they aren’t especially worried at this point. At the same time, they suggest the possibility bears watching.”For the time being there is no cause for worry especially for vaccines because the influenza vaccines are really . . . very well known in terms of the seasonal use of these,” said Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, director of the World Health Organization’s Initiative for Vaccine Research, in a recent news briefing.But there is enough concern so that the H1N1 vaccine clinical trials recently announced by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) will look into the question. Two of the trials will examine whether giving an H1N1 vaccine and seasonal flu vaccine sequentially or simultaneously affects the immune response to either vaccine, according to the NIAID’s descriptions of the trials.Study raises issue anewA study published recently by the Journal of Immunology raised anew the question of original antigenic sin. Saying that some recent studies have raised doubts about the existence of the phenomenon, scientists at the Emory University Vaccine Center in Atlanta used three different approaches to look for evidence of original antigenic sin in mice. They found evidence of it under certain conditions.The scientists used two human H1N1 viruses, labeled PR8 and FM1, that emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. They sequentially immunized mice with conventional vaccines using inactivated viruses, and they immunized other mice with DNA vaccines that encoded the hemagglutinin proteins from the two strains. In a third experiment, they sequentially exposed mice to the live viruses. The interval between the two inoculations in most cases was 1 month.In the mice sequentially immunized with conventional vaccines, the team found minimal differences in antibody responses to the two strains. However, when the mice were then challenged with a high dose of the FM1 virus, the virus multiplied in their lungs far more than it did in the lungs of control mice that had received only the FM1 vaccine.When mice were sequentially immunized with the DNA vaccines, the team found that the antibody response to the FM1 vaccine was oriented to the PR8 (original) vaccine, and antibodies to the FM1 strain were reduced, according to the report.However, the original antigenic sin effect was much stronger in the mice that were infected with the two live viruses. “Sequential infection with live viruses generated severely reduced neutralization Ab [antibody] responses and compromised memory responses to the second virus,” the report states. The authors suggest that this phenomenon helps explain the success and prevalence of flu viruses: when they mutate, the host immune system is fooled into responding to the predecessor strain instead of the mutated one.Antigenic distance is keyOn the other hand, original antigenic sin occurs only when the new strain is closely related to one the host has seen before, the scientists write. It is not known exactly how much antigenic similarity (likeness in the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin protein of the two strains) between the two strains is necessary to fool the immune system, but past studies have shown that antigenically distant or dissimilar strains fail to trigger original antigenic sin.That finding seems to suggest that original antigenic sin would not be induced by a novel H1N1 immunization soon after getting a seasonal flu vaccine, as the new virus is not considered a close relative of the H1N1 strain in the seasonal vaccine.In fact, that’s the view of Robert G. Webster, PhD, a highly respected virologist and flu expert who did some of the original research on original antigenic sin decades ago. He is based at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis.”The antigenic distance between the seasonal H1N1 and swine flu is very large, so I don’t think original antigenic sin is going to be a problem,” Webster said in a recent interview.He said that even if the phenomenon did arise, it might be possible to overcome it by using one of the newer vaccine adjuvants or by increasing the dose of vaccine. “With a larger dose, you can negate the original sin by sort of flooding the receptors with sufficient antigen to negate it,” he said.Jin H. Kim, PhD, a postdoctoral research associate at Emory and the lead author of the recent study, said the type of vaccine is important. He noted his finding that original antigenic sin was minimal when inactivated virus vaccines were used. Similarly, he said by e-mail, two recent studies found little evidence of original antigenic sin when humans received an inactivated vaccine against one seasonal flu strain and later were vaccinated against a drifted variant of that strain.What about live-virus vaccines?However, the finding that sequential exposure to live viruses invoked a greatly reduced response to the second virus raises the question whether the use of live attenuated vaccines for seasonal flu and the novel virus could lead to a similar response, Kim noted by e-mail. MedImmune, maker of the live attenuated seasonal vaccine FluMist, is also making a live version of novel H1N1 vaccine.”It is [an] intriguing question whether the live attenuated vaccines would induce original antigenic sin,” Kim said. “Our data show that sequential infection with related H1N1 viruses causes significant original antigenic sin and dampens the development of protective immunity. Therefore, it is possible that live attenuated swine origin H1N1 virus vaccine may behave similarly. However, it is important to note that we have not tested this in humans, thus this would be an immature conclusion at this point.” What if seasonal flu and novel H1N1 immunizations are given at the same time? John Treanor, MD, a vaccine researcher at the University of Rochester, said interference between the two vaccines is not likely to be a problem.He noted that the seasonal vaccine itself normally contains three different strains of flu virus, and interference isn’t a big concern. “In the absence of data, it’s hard to be completely confident about the potential for interference when the seasonal vaccine is given at the same time as the H1N1 vaccine, but I think the hypothesis is that there will not be interference between components,” he said.Treanor commented that when two vaccines must be given in sequence rather than simultaneously, his view is that they should be separated by at least 2 weeks, mainly to prevent any confusion about attributing side effects. Cautioning that he is not an expert on original antigenic sin, he added, “I do not know if there is really any data that would suggest that such a schedule would or would not result in a decrease in the response to the novel H1N1 (or who knows, maybe an increase),” he said.For Webster, original antigenic sin is only a minor concern in the current situation with regard to H1N1 vaccination.”At the moment it’s not a big issue, in my opinion,” he said. “It’s something we have at the back of our minds that we’ll watch for. The new H1N1 is antigenically stable, vastly different from the seasonal H1N1, and we need to have vaccine for it wiki-wiki [very fast].”See also: Kim JH, Skountzou I, Compans R, et al. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses. J Immunol 2009 (early online publication Jul 31) [Abstract]Transcript of Aug 6 WHO news briefinghttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/pandemic_h1n1_presstranscript_2009_08_06.pdfDescription of NIAID-sponsored trial examining sequential and simultaneous immunization of adults with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines from Sanofi Pasteurhttp://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00943878Description of NIAID-sponsored trial examining sequential and simultaneous immunization of children with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines from Sanofi Pasteurhttp://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00943202
Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.
Stuff.co.nz 12 May 2012New Zealand ignores the increasing violence among teenage girls at their peril – because these are the mothers of the next generation, says Dr Donna Swift. The Nelson-based social anthropologist is the author of a two-year research project, The Girls’ Project, which investigated violent and anti-social young women in her region. “We need to recognise that these young girls are going to be the mothers of the next generation,” Dr Swift told the Taranaki Daily News. Following on from the investigation, Dr Swift’s aim now is to put a halt to the cycle of violence by sharing her knowledge throughout the country.….Dr Swift says New Zealand lacks programmes and understanding of girls that are gender-specific, gender-responsive and trauma-informed. In translation, Dr Swift says money needs to be put into developing programmes which will specifically address girls’ violence in the knowledge that the reasons girls are violent is radically different from boys. Currently, programmes on how to deal with teen violence are aimed at boys, who make up 70 per cent of offenders who come to the attention of police. But the project revealed there was a definite increase in more aggressive behaviour in girls and that they were becoming violent at a younger age. Girls were modelling themselves on the “kick-ass” sexualised and aggressive female role models glorified in the media, she said.http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/education/6956102/Danger-in-ignoring-violence-in-girls
The Oldenburg Academy Twisters defeated Greenwood Christian 9-0 in Varsity baseball action.OA-300 110 4. 9-11-2GC-000 001 0. 1-7-4OA Batting:Nick Bischoff 3-4, 2 runs, double, bbMatty Hurm 0-4, sac fly rbiAaron Huber 0-1, run, 4 bb, sbTanner Alley 0-3, bb, sac buntTyler Hesselbrock 1-4, run, bb, rbiBryce Ahaus 1-2, 2 rbi, sb, sac buntCory Schuman 2-3, 2 runs, 2 doubles, hbpSam Gast 3-4, run, 2 doubles, 3 rbiTyler Hogg 1-4, run, sbOA Pitching.Matty Hurm 7 IP, 1 earned run, 7 hits, 6 k, 2 bb, hbp WinVarsity record: 6-4Next game: Wednesday (4-22) at North Decatur.Courtesy of Twisters Coach Doug Behlmer.
Greensburg, IN—Legal Aid announces a Free Legal Aid Clinic on Wednesday, February 12 at the Decatur County Public Library. The clinic will be held from 3 pm – 5 pm. The free clinics are offered to low-income residents.The Legal Aid Clinic and Pro Bono Program utilizes local volunteer attorneys, offering free legal consultations to low-income individuals for the provision of legal advice and assistance in furtherance of equal access to justice within our community who might not otherwise be able to afford the counsel of an attorney. Individuals coming to the Legal Aid Clinic can expect to receive a 10-minute consultation to answer general questions, offer legal information, or to receive other limited pro se assistance or advice, in person, on a first-come, first-serve basis. There is no need to register in advance.
Batesville, IN—For several years now, Mayor Mike Bettice and the City of Batesville have been working on a way to connect downtown Batesville with the Northside of the City. The City of Batesville received word on Monday from INDOT that it will receive $1.5 million for from A Federal Highway matching grant program to connect sidewalk on State Road 229/Walnut Street to the unnamed Northside park trail. The sidewalk will have crosswalks to cross over State Road 46 and Interstate 74 on the West side of the road along 229. The 80/20 matching grant that was slated to begin in 2025 has also given way to allow a construction letting on 2023, two years earlier than anticipated. Mayor Bettice stated that this opens the door for regional opportunities to further connect Batesville and Oldenburg.
The Palm Beach County Sheriff’s Office says they are currently searching for two thieves who stole toilet paper and several other items from a Walmart store.The incident was reported on March 19th at the location at 6294 Forest Hill Blvd.Officials say the suspects stole two packs of Charmin toilet paper, four cases of Corona beer, two cases of Tide laundry detergent, a large package of paper towels, and several Swiffer cleaning products and costed the store at least $500.The thieves then fled the store in a 2013 white Hyundai.If you have any information about this incident, you are asked to contact Crime Stoppers at 1-800-458-TIPS.
By Frederick HalleyTORONTO, Canada – Although the Ontario Roundarm Softball Cricket Association (ORSCA) 2016 season ended several weeks ago, the bragging rights were seemingly evident at last Saturday night’s sixth annual presentation, dinner and dance, held at the Royal Banquet Hall in Mississauga here.Two of the top participating teams, Spartans and Sunrisers, who shared honours in separate tournaments and who many felt would have clashed in the grand champion finale, openly threw out challenges against each other at Saturday night’s function.Ravendra Mandolall is rewarded for his sterling performances.East Division champions Spartans captured the grand championship title with victory over West Division leaders Titans after earlier winning the T20 crown while Sunrisers lifted the 10/10 and T20 ‘test’ trophies.The Most Valuable Player (MVP) award for the 2016 season went to Rajkumar Budhram of Shawson who tallied an impressive 709 runs (average 78.78) while former Guyana Under-19 batsman Ravendra Mandolall, who represented Sunrisers enjoyed a fine season, scoring 437 runs (including innings of 130 and 100 not out) with the top average of 109.25.Mandolall also finished third in the six-hitting category with 56, with Rajkumar topping with an amazing 79 while Navin Latchman of 11th Main Army occupied the second spot with 66.Latchman also topped the West Zone with 555 runs while the leading bowlers in the East and West zones respectively were Naurang Brigmohan with 27 wickets (average 5.49) and Surendra Raj Singh with 23 wickets (average 8.94). Rishi Harricharran was the most economical bowler, sending 35.4 overs at an average of 4.12 runs per over.Former Guyana wicketkeeper Azib Ali Hanif (Masters) and veteran Ricky Hunte were also in the mix, the former placing fourth among players with the best batting average (76.50 runs per innings) while Hunte’s lone innings was a blistering 101 for Fuzion.Enjoying his first year as president, Guyanese-born Mitch Bacchus lauded the success of the organisation which he said had grown by leaps and bounds over its six-year existence, more than doubling the number of teams it started with.According to Bacchus, the season was another successful one with few hiccups, with a new champion (Spartans) being crowned after Smashers had won the championship for the last three years in succession.Rajkumar Budhram collects his MVP trophy.Bacchus boasted that the growth in the number of teams, which stood at 26 at the end of the season “was probably due to our effectiveness in maintaining a high level of discipline and sportsmanship. We provide a fair and clear set of rules which govern the well organised league. The members are committed and supportive in the round arm bowling, which allows for a fair contest in each game.”Bacchus disclosed that the immediate plans “are to maintain our standard and keep building our strength, in the form of fair governing rules. There are always rooms for improvement and growth and we keep an open mind to improve or adjust as we see fit to make the game play fair and for the players to have fun.Bacchus also shunned rumours that the league plans to extend to the East end, positing that “there are no plans at the moment to extend out to the east.”Founder-member Victor Yakoob, who was honoured for his outstanding service to ORSCA, praised the work of the current executive members and reminded those in attendance that “cricket is here to be played”. He also alluded to the fact that they are moving in the right direction.
The Athletic first reported the Jets’ agreement with Desir, who was released by Colts on Saturday.The 29-year-old defensive back spent the past three seasons with Indianapolis, where he had 161 total tackles, five interceptions, 26 passes defensed, two forced fumbles and a fumble recovery in 37 games, including 29 starts.Also in the NFL:— A person with knowledge of the deal says the Seahawks have agreed to terms with offensive lineman Chance Warmack. The former first-round pick has not played since 2018 when he appeared in nine games for Philadelphia. Warmack sat out last season to reportedly get healthy after a series of injuries.NASCAR-iRACING National Olympic committees in Brazil and Slovenia later called for a postponement to 2021. Norway’s Olympic body said it did not want athletes going to Tokyo until the global health crisis is under control.The United States governing bodies of swimming and track have called on their national Olympic officials to push for a postponement.VIRUS OUTBREAK-SPORTSJays’ Shapiro expects 4-week spring training before seasonUNDATED (AP) — Toronto Blue Jays President Mark Shapiro says he thinks Major League Baseball would need at least a month of workouts and exhibition games before regular season play can begin. Barefoot Hamlin wins NASCAR iRaceCHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) — Denny Hamlin won a race without using a drop of gas.Racing barefoot, the three-time Daytona 500 winner beat Dale Earnhardt Jr. off the final corner to win a NASCAR iRacing event at virtual Homestead-Miami Speedway.Damaged cars were repaired with the push of a button, among a few virtual signs that NASCAR backed quite an unreal race.NASCAR eased off the brake in the real sports world brought to a sudden halt by the coronavirus and introduced the country to iRacing with some of the sports biggest stars. March 22, 2020 Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditVIRUS OUTBREAK-OLYMPICSIOC to consider postponing Tokyo OlympicsLAUSANNE, Switzerland (AP) — There’s a growing possibility the Tokyo Olympics won’t begin in late July as scheduled due to the new coronavirus. Associated Press Opening day has been postponed until at least mid-May because of the coronavirus pandemic.Shapiro cautioned that training camps aren’t likely to open for some time because of the outbreak. All but three of Toronto’s major league players have left the team’s spring training site in Dunedin, Florida. Shapiro says no Blue Jays players or staff have displayed any symptoms of the new coronavirus, and that no one has been tested.Shapiro spoke to reporters on Sunday from his home in Toronto.In other virus-related developments:— The St. Louis Blues say a relative of a team employee has tested positive for COVID-19. The person is in self-isolation along with members of the person’s family, according to the team. All Blues staff who may have come into close contact with the employee have been notified. The team says it is asking for all members of the Blues to remain isolated, monitor their health and seek advice from team medical staff. — Hours after the Australian government called for its citizens to cancel all non-essential travel, the Australian rules Australian Football League announced it was postponing its seasons until May 31. Australia’s various football leagues were among the few remaining professional sports still playing across the globe.— The $12 million Dubai World Cup, the world’s richest purse in horse racing, will be postponed until next year. That’s according to an announcement from the Dubai Media Office, a governmental agency. Officials had planned to run the race March 28 without spectators over concerns about the new coronavirus and the COVID-19 illness it causes.NFL-NEWSAP sources: Jets agree to 1-year deal with CB Pierre DesirNEW YORK (AP) — The New York Jets and cornerback Pierre Desir have agreed to terms on a deal, according to two people with direct knowledge of the contract. The International Olympic Committee now says it will consider the possibility of postponing the Summer Games. The IOC issued a statement saying it will hold four weeks of discussions with global sports officials and Japanese authorities to examine the options. It says the “scenario planning” will include the possibility of changing the July 24 start date for the Games, but that “cancellation is not on the agenda.”The announcement came after IOC President Thomas Bach led a conference call with executive board members.The leader of the international track federation has sent a letter to Bach saying holding the Olympics in July “is neither feasible nor desirable” with the coronavirus impacting huge swaths of the globe.Seb Coe sent the letter Sunday after meeting with leaders from around the world in track, which is the biggest sport at the Olympics. It came hours after the IOC announced it could take up to four weeks to make a decision on whether to postpone the games, which are scheduled to start July 24.Coe is a two-time Olympic track champion in the men’s 1,500 and president of the International Association of Athletics Federations. Update on the latest sports It was Hamlin’s 31st victory in iRacing, which is where he was first discovered by Earnhardt long before he made it to NASCAR. He said he raced barefoot because “I like to feel the pedals.”Hamlin was heavily involved in putting together Sunday’s pretend race, which was broadcast live on Fox Sports 1 and called by its regular team of Mike Joy and Hall of Famer Jeff Gordon.NASCAR has suspended racing until at least May 9.,Tampa Bay Lightning advance to face Dallas Stars in Stanley Cup finals, beating New York Islanders 2-1 in OT in Game 6
By Ras WadadaAFTER starting all 20 games of the 2019 season for Eastern Florida State College in the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) Division 1 Soccer, the only disappointment for Guyanese Curtez Kellman Jr is not lifting the Championship.In his first season of a 2-year full scholarship Kellman, who just turned 22, has cemented his place in the Titans team at central defence though he will quickly tell you his real position is central midfield. The Pisces-born who had a belated start to the ‘Beautiful Game’ continues to flourish after only 8 years of involvement and his eyes are now set on playing professionally.Speaking to Chronicle Sport exclusively from his forced confinement in Miami due to COVID-19, Kellman recalled how he got started, “Growing up in East Ruimveldt it was easy to get involved in the sport since it was popular and almost all the youths played in the streets and were members of a club; but because my mom was overly protective due to the kind of negatives associated with the game, I was not allowed to participate.“I, however, was encouraged by my friends to join GFC at the age of 14 and that’s where it started, but mind you, football is in my genes as my father played in his time.”Although he was raw talent when he went to GFC his character spoke volumes and caught the eyes of the club’s manager Faizal Khan, “His work ethics and passion for the game were very impressive and add to that his discipline and respect for everyone. For someone who started playing late he had a decent first touch and was very coachable and these are attributes any coach would embrace.“I am happy how he has developed and we at GFC are proud of his achievements, so far, and more importantly that his talents are paying for his education,” Khan expressed.His name quickly became household among his peers and age-group players and even his Mom, with pride, started to follow his games and his rise to prominence. His boundless talent was now the talk among followers of the game and soon he was recruited from St Mary’s High School and given a scholarship to attend Chase Academy.His biggest moment of surprise, however, came in November of 2017 when he was selected to represent the Guyana senior national team in an away friendly International versus Indonesia at the age of 19. Earlier in the same year between March and May he was contracted by Antiguan side Grenades FC to play in the Caribbean Football Union’s Club Championship.“I must admit I was surprised to be called up although I was enjoying a solid and consistent Elite league season for GFC, but, yes, it was a big moment. I played at central midfield, coming on for Anthony Benfield after 14 minutes of the game that ended in a 1-2 loss for us.“I was a little nervous at first, but quickly adapted once I got onto the pitch. It was a good game ‘end to end’ and played at a good level. The atmosphere of the game on November 25 I will never forget”, a satisfied debutant Kellman recounted.The self-acclaimed, down-to-earth and jovial Kellman’s hunger to achieve more in the sport grew more intense and that led him to Florida where Guyanese educator, Albert Cappell, arranged for him to play in try-outs for the Eastern Florida State College Titans. Such was his impressive performances in the January 2019 try-outs that English-born coach, Oliver Twelvetrees, provided Kellman Jr with a full 2-year scholarship.It was a decision that the coach never regretted as the Titans made it to the Championship game for the first time in the school’s history, losing 1-2 to Monroe College in Tyler, Texas. The mere presence of the athleticism and soccer intelligence of Kellman in the defense played a pivotal role in the Titans cenjoying a season where they only lost twice, to same Monroe College, while recording 16 wins and two draws. It was a record-breaking season for the Titans that included 13 clean sheets.”The result in the final could have been different had we not lost two players due to red card. We were all disappointed at losing but revenge is on our minds already, so this coming season we will be determined to avenge that defeat and bring home the first title for the College,” Kellman promised.Kellman who is majoring in Business Administration is thinking ahead of his completion at Eastern Florida State College and is seriously planning to play soccer professionally. “It has not been an easy journey so far since it is a real challenge to balance books and football, but I devised a daily routine and have stuck with it and it has worked.”“All I have achieved would not have been possible without the care and support of my parents, Mr Albert Cappell, Mr Faizal Khan as well as my aunts and uncles, and to them I am very grateful,” Kellman proclaimed.At the moment, Kellman, together with another national footballer, Jeremy Garret, is being held up in Miami due to COVID-19, but thanks to the intervention of the Director of Sport, Christopher Jones the players’ welfare is being taken care of by the Guyana Consulate in Florida until the airports here reopen.Until that time Kellman can only look forward to his return home where he knows he can enjoy his favourite meal of fried rice with baked chicken and macaroni.