Organisation November 4, 2002 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Government shuts down Al-Jazeera office Courts uphold newspaper’s closure, increase blogger’s jail term KuwaitMiddle East – North Africa January 21, 2016 Find out more News RSF_en Help by sharing this information Receive email alerts Popular blogger charged with blasphemy September 5, 2014 Find out more News News News Reporters Without Borders today deplored the Kuwaiti government’s closure of the local office of the Qatar-based regional TV station Al-Jazeera and said it was proof of the “contempt” many Arab governments had for press freedom.The Kuwaiti information ministry ordered the office to close on 3 November, the day after the station had broadcast a report that a quarter of Kuwait’s territory (in the northwest) had been sealed off to allow US-Kuwaiti military manœuvres to take place there. The government said the report harmed the country’s interests, while Al-Jazeera editors insisted it was objective and impartial.”The numerous bans and threats of Arab leaders aimed at the station clearly show their unshakeable solidarity when it comes to contempt for press freedom,” said Reporters Without Borders secretary-general Robert Ménard. “The Gulf emirates in particular distrust their own people by denying their right to free and balanced news as opposed to official propaganda,” he said, calling for the closure decision to be cancelled.Early last month, information ministers from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman attending a meeting in Muscat of the regional Gulf Cooperation Council accused Al-Jazeera of “insulting and defaming” their countries. They called on governments to refuse to give information to it and for public and private sectors to cut all commercial and advertising links to the station.The Al-Jazeera office in Kuwait was closed once before, in June 1999, after an Iraqi caller insulted the country’s emir during a live broadcast.The satellite station, founded in 1996, irritates Arab leaders because it gives air-time to their opponents and to ordinary viewers and discusses taboo political and social topics. Relations between Jordan and Qatar have been tense in recent months since Jordan accused the station of stirring up unrest in the country and insulting the royal family. The station’s office in Amman was briefly shut down in August. Follow the news on Kuwait New Cyber Crimes Law restricts free expression and targets online activists to go further KuwaitMiddle East – North Africa February 23, 2015 Find out more
In contrast to earlier studies, the authors describe the climatological deep low pressure system that exists over the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, referred to as the Amundsen–Bellingshausen Seas low (ABSL), in terms of its relative (rather than actual) central pressure by removing the background area-averaged mean sea level pressure (MSLP). Doing so removes much of the influence of large-scale variability across the ABSL sector region (e.g., due to the southern annular mode), allowing a clearer understanding of ABSL variability and its effect on the regional climate of West Antarctica. Using ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) fields, the annual cycle of the relative central pressure of the ABSL for the period from 1979 to 2011 shows a minimum (maximum) during winter (summer), differing considerably from the earlier studies based on actual central pressure, which suggests a semiannual oscillation. The annual cycle of the longitudinal position of the ABSL is insensitive to the background pressure, and shows it shifting westward from 250° to 220°E between summer and winter, in agreement with earlier studies. The authors demonstrate that ABSL variability, and in particular its longitudinal position, play an important role in controlling the surface climate of West Antarctica and the surrounding ocean by quantifying its influence on key meteorological parameters. Examination of the ABSL annual cycle in 17 CMIP5 climate models run with historical forcing shows that the majority of them have definite biases, especially in terms of longitudinal position, and a correspondingly poor representation of West Antarctic climate.