GPS crustal velocity data from the Scotia and South Sandwich plates, transform azimuths, spreading data, and an updated earthquake slip vector catalog provide the first Scotia and South Sandwich plate Euler vector estimates not dependent on closure as the GPS data tie them to the global plate circuit. Neither the GPS data, which sample limited portions of the plates, nor the geologic data, which are not tied to the global spreading circuit, are sufficient individually to define the Euler vectors. As Scotia plate GPS measurements do not sample the stable plate interior, plate boundary deformation field modeling is necessary for Euler vector estimation. Our South America- Antarctic and Scotia- South Sandwich Euler pole estimates agree with previous estimates from either GPS or geologic data. Our South America- Scotia Euler vector, however, is significantly different and near the South America- Antarctic Euler vector producing an approximately coaxial motion of Scotia between South America and Antarctica.
We use National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis data to investigate the Antarctic mean tropospheric temperature anomaly associated with changes in the dawn-dusk component By of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We find that the mean tropospheric temperature anomaly for geographical latitudes ≤ −70° peaks at about 0.7 K and is statistically significant at the 5% level between air pressures of 1 000 and 500 hPa (∼0.1–5.6 km altitude above sea level) and for time lags with respect to the IMF of up to 7 days. The peak values of the air temperature anomaly occur at a greater time lag at 500 hPa (∼5.6 km) than at 1 000 – 600 hPa (∼0.1–4.2 km), which may indicate that the signature propagates vertically. The characteristics of prompt response and possible vertical propagation within the troposphere have previously been seen in the correlation between the IMF and high-latitude air pressure anomalies, known as the Mansurov effect, at higher statistical significances (1%). For time lags between the IMF and the troposphere of 0–6 days and altitudes between 1 000 and 700 hPa (∼0.1–3 km), the relationship between highly statistically significant (1% level) geopotential height anomaly values and the corresponding air temperature anomaly values is consistent with the standard lapse rate in atmospheric temperature. We conclude that we have identified the temperature signature of the Mansurov effect in the Antarctic troposphere. Since these tropospheric anomalies have been associated with By-driven anomalies in the electric potential of the ionosphere, we further conclude that they are caused by IMF-induced changes to the global atmospheric electric circuit (GEC). Our results support the view that variations in the ionospheric potential act on the troposphere, possibly via the action of consequent variations in the downwards current of the GEC on tropospheric clouds.
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSALT LAKE CITY (AP) — A committee preparing a bid for Salt Lake City to host a future Winter Olympics says the desire to bring the Olympics back to Utah in 2030 or 2034 remains firm despite the impact of the coronavirus pandemic upending plans for the Tokyo Games.Salt Lake City Committee CEO Fraser Bullock says the pandemic is a reminder of the risks that come with hosting events and offers a chance to learn lessons from how Tokyo organizers adapt.The U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Committee chose Salt Lake City two years ago as the next American city to bid for a Winter Olympics. It hasn’t chosen which year. Tags: Olympics/Salt Lake City 2030 Olympics Written by November 17, 2020 /Coronavirus (COVID-19) related news and sports stories, Sports News – Local Salt Lake City all in on future Olympic bid, timing unknown Associated Press
Back to overview,Home naval-today Russian Guided Missile Cruiser to Visit Vancouver Share this article View post tag: Visit View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Naval View post tag: Navy Training & Education View post tag: Missile View post tag: to View post tag: Russian View post tag: Cruiser View post tag: Guided Russian Guided Missile Cruiser to Visit Vancouver View post tag: Vancouver Russian guided missile cruiser Varyag and tanker Irkut will call at Vancouver on Monday, in what will be their first visit…(ruvr)[mappress]Source: ruvr, November 07, 2011; November 7, 2011
Richard Hamilton of HamiltonBIG, a creative retail and brand consultancy, talks through the three Ps of a shopfitWe all make mistakes, but some are far more costly than others. In shopfitting there are some obvious ones that are worth avoiding, but these three Ps are the most critical: planning, programme and price.Planning can be a hassle. Take a typical 1960s shop in a high street and you want the best signage you can get, you want to replace the shopfront and you want to open up spaces to locate the fridges and increase covers. But for reasons sometimes beyond the realm of logic, you are held back for at least eight weeks by the bureaucracy of red tape and middle management it happens countless times.Yet in some cases, planning is vital historic buildings are a case in point. But whether we agree with it or not, the costs of not applying for planning can be a serious mistake, affecting the programme with potentially bank-breaking consequences.Programme is the second ’P’ and is critical to ensure the budget is adhered to. There is plenty to take into consideration. If you want to start building a store in a month’s time, you need to appoint a shopfitter, agree a price and allow them a lead-in period for the job at least two weeks in advance, as they have to organise labour and order in materials. Once on-site, you or preferably a project manager have to keep pushing the programme, as additional days on-site cost you dearly.The final ’P’ is price the most important P not to get wrong. The cost of building store is critical to your business and any mistakes here will have the greatest impact on your payback period, your weekly sales budget and, ultimately, your profit. Agree a cost with a shopfitter a JCT contract can ensure you’re covered legally and make sure you’ve signed off a scope of works that you’ve seen and agreed. Manage your expectations on budget, remembering a contingency. If you can cover off these three Ps thoroughly, any mistakes that could happen should be highlighted and rectified before they begin to have an effect.In fact, there is one final P, plastic flowers just don’t do it.l Next month: how to source the best construction [email protected]
Load remaining images Yesterday, Breckenridge Brewery Hootenanny celebrated its 28th year, with a one-day music festival hosted by the Littleton, Colorado brewery. The day-long celebration of music and beer tapped a noteworthy lineup this year, highlighted by a headlining set by Phish bassist Mike Gordon to close out the night. The festival also saw a rockin’ performance by Hard Working Americans–the supergroup featuring members of Widespread Panic, Chris Robinson Brotherhood, and Great American Taxi–and young bluegrass guitar prodigy Billy Strings.Drew Emmitt and Andy Thorn of Leftover Salmon invited friends Eddie Roberts of The New Mastersounds, Daniel Rodriguez and Dango Rose of Elephant Revival, and Joe Lessard of Head for the Hills for a special collaborative set. Leftover Salmon’s Vince Herman, Billy Strings, and Drew Emmitt’s son, Eli Emmitt, also joined in on the fun, offering a slew of traditional bluegrass tunes, Leftover Salmon covers, Elephant Revival covers, and more.Drew Emmitt/Andy Thorn & Friends with Billy Strings – “Sitting On Top Of The World” [Video: Kyle Isaac]The highlight of the blistering-hot day was Mike Gordon’s headlining set. Joined by his regular touring band comprised of guitarist Scott Murawski, keyboardist Robert Walter, drummer John Kimock, and percussionist Craig Myers, the Phish bassist dove head-first into his 90-minute set, following a brief rain and lightning delay. With an extended, jammed-out intro, Gordon opened the show with “Say Something” off of 2014’s Overstep, clad from head to toe in a bedazzled green outfit. “Stealing Jamaica” off of Gordon’s most recent studio release OGOGO came next, before laying down solid renditions of Max Creek’s “Jones”, “Steps”, and Tame Impala’s “Mind Mischief”, a tune that has become a regular cover in the Mike Gordon rotation.Up next was “Yarmouth Road”, followed by “Crazy Sometimes”, a tune that slowly found its way into the Phish catalog last summer. Gordon and his band delivered a smoking-hot cover of “Cities” in the 97-degree heat, with Scott Murawski nailing the lyrics, adding his own spice to the Talking Heads 1979 classic. The heat was not holding anyone back from getting down and dancing, as Mike brought the one-set show to an end with “Go Away”, another OGOGO tune. After a very brief break to catch his breath, Gordon and his four musical brothers returned for an encore of Aerosmith’s “Sweet Emotion”, with an attentive Colorado crowd singing along.You can check out a gallery from the 2018 Breckenridge Brewery Hootenany below, courtesy of Bill McAlaine.Setlist: Mike Gordon | Breckenridge Brewery | Littleton, CO | 7/7/18Set One: Say Something, Stealing Jamaica, Jones, Steps, Mind Mischief, Yarmouth Road, Crazy Sometimes, Cities, Go AwayEncore: Sweet EmotionMike Gordon & Hard Working Americans | Breckenridge Brewery | Littleton, CO | 7/7/2018 | Photo: Bill McAlaine
While preparing his thesis on the rise of nationalist thinking among a rarely studied Middle Eastern Christian minority group who speak Syriac as a common language, Raid Gharib, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Tübingen, happened upon a catalog of Syriac and other language sources, The Assyrian Experience: sources for the study of the 19th and 20th centuries, edited by historian Eden Naby and Harvard College Library’s Michael Hopper, head of the Middle Eastern Division.Using Naby and Hopper’s book as a guide, Gharib began assembling a list of research materials, but quickly discovered that most of them – including about 90 periodicals and dozens of books – are only available at Harvard’s Widener Library. The solution, he decided, was to travel to Cambridge to conduct his research.Before coming to Cambridge, Gharib contacted Hopper via email with the list of items he hoped to study. Hopper was able to pull many of the items before Gharib arrived in early August, along with others that might be useful to his research. Hopper also arranged for Gharib to have access to the Gibb Islamic Seminar Library, a quiet space used by faculty and students in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations located near the Middle Eastern Division collection.“When I arrived here, I found Michael had prepared material for me that wasn’t even on my list,” he said. “I am very much indebted to Michael and his team for doing everything to make my studies here very comfortable and very successful.”Often called Assyrians, Arameans, or Chaldeans, the Syriac-speaking people are an ancient Christian group with roots in Iraq, Syria, Iran, and Turkey. Following World War I, a plan was in place to create an autonomous region for the Syriac-speaking population, but the plan collapsed due to the lack of political power and backing from the Great Powers. Without a homeland to bind the population together, Gharib said, the result was a scattered people around the world. With no unifying national identify, the community is today fractured, with no single leader to represent the population or preserve the culture.While Gharib’s stay at Harvard recently ended, Hopper hopes his involvement with the library will continue – as a source of materials on the Syriac-speaking people.“Collecting literature by or about the Assyrians is challenging. Because they have such a large diaspora, materials about them can come from almost anywhere—Sweden, England, Germany, Australia, or U.S. cities like Chicago and Turlock, California, in addition to the long-existing communities in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria,” Hopper said. “Much of it is self-published or contained in family papers, and has to be acquired through personal contacts rather than from commercial vendors. We hope Raid will now be a contact for us in acquiring materials from the various Syriac-speaking communities in Germany.”
Harvard professor and 1998 Nobel Prize winner in Economics Amartya Sen delivered the 18th annual Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh Lecture in Ethics and Public Policy Tuesday night. Sen is also this year’s recipient of the Notre Dame Award for International Human Development and Solidarity. His lecture stressed the importance of positive social change in the world. University President Father John Jenkins welcomed Sen and praised his work in justice and development. “[Sen’s work] touches the heart of what we are about at Notre Dame,” Jenkins said. Sen opened his lecture with a quote from Nietzsche about humanity’s tendency to focus on the negative aspects of life. Rather than contradicting Nietzsche, however, Sen said the world is full of hardships. “The world in which we live, I fear, is, in fact, ugly and bad,” said Sen. However, Sen’s said his seemingly pessimistic view is in the context of the many injustices in the world. He said by failing to address and acknowledge the many instances of poverty, injustice, and violence, humans also lose the opportunity for positive social change. “The common tendency to ignore how nasty the world is helps many injustices to remain unexamined and remedied,” Sen said. Sen said people should not focus on instituting justice, but rather removing sources of injustice. What needs to be eliminated from the world can be agreed upon, Sen said, but disagreement about what will make the world “perfect” will exist. In such circumstances, eliminating the injustice should take priority over attempting to achieve an ideal society, he said. Sen also stressed the importance of freedom in establishing justice. “Freedom is not only among the most valued ideas in the world, it is among the most feared human conditions,” Sen said. Sen said many oppressed people adopt a cheerful mentality to cope with their situation. Meanwhile, the oppressors are those who fear the consequences of liberation. “Those who are afraid of freedom tend to be afraid of the freedom of others,” said Sen. Sen finished his lecture by restating the Nietzsche quote. However, he did not end with on a note of defeat, but a call to engage and rectify injustices. “We can rise to the challenge with reasoning and a better understanding of the problems we need to address,” Sen said. Contact Amy Klopfenstein at [email protected].edu
Opera Notre Dame will present “Pirates of Penzance,” an operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan first performed in 1879, beginning this Thursday at 7:30 p.m. in Decio Theater at the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center. The show, which revolves around a lovable gang of pirates and their apprentice Fredrich, will run all weekend.The production will be the first Gilbert and Sullivan work performed by Opera ND, and Director Alek Shrader said the opera will look and sound different than what most would expect.“Gilbert and Sullivan shows were always intended to be highly comedic, very light fare. Although it’s comedic, it doesn’t diminish the performance in any way — it doesn’t cheapen it,” Shrader said. “The music and the text are so brilliant that it can support a modernization of their original work. They always intended it to be contemporary, not so lofty and stuffy.”Conductor Daniel Stowe said this kind of performance demands much from the orchestra as well as the actors.“It’s tricky, trying to stay out of the way of the singing actors and supporting them, but still giving as full a musical account as you can,” he said. “It’s a different level of challenge.”Opera ND’s production of “Pirates” has taken on its own character, Shrader said, much to the excitement of the cast and crew.“We stripped out everything outdated. We’re living in the now in this production,” he said. “I know I’m the director and I crafted a lot of the jokes, but I guarantee it’s funny.”Freshman actor Tim Purnell said he attests to the originality of this production.“I’ve actually been in Pirates three different times, but this director is so creative,” he said. “He’s done so many things that make me crack up, even though often jokes get repeated through the show. He’s just really inventive and brings the show to life.”The cast and crew have grown as individuals and as a unit over the course of production, Shrader said.“The most important thing is that the students gain not only the experience of doing this, but that they can take this experience forward in later performances, but also just in life and other studies,” Shrader said. “Each rehearsal has grown and achieved some momentum. We’re evolving the show. I can step back and let the performers take their own initiatives.”Stowe said he finds the high level of vocal performance provided by the graduate singers from Notre Dame’s Sacred Music Program in the show particularly exciting.“The graduate singers … are just tremendous — professional-quality singers, wonderful actors,” he said. “It really raises the level of performance in the show.”Each production member has a different ambition for opening night, Purnell said, and the cast’s untapped energy has resulted in plenty of anticipation for opening night.“Once everyone is on stage in front of an audience, they’ll bring all the energy they’ve been holding back in rehearsal,” he said. “I’m just excited to see everyone fully engaged.”But while the cast is excited for the stage, Stowe said nothing can prepare them for the exhilaration of performing in front of an audience.“You never know how the audience reacts until you have one,” he said. “All the planning goes out the window when you get a live audience. You hope that you guessed right — and if not, you’ll find out soon enough.”Tags: Decio Theater, Opera, Opera ND, Opera Notre Dame, performing arts, Pirates of Penzance
Aug 18, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – Half a century ago, scientists reported evidence of some curious behavior by the immune system in humans and animals: If a host was exposed to an influenza virus and later encountered a variant strain of the same virus, the immune system responded to the second attack largely with the same weapons it used against the first one.Like an army still fighting by the tactics of the last war, the host immune system mostly produced antibodies matched to the first virus instead of the second, resulting in a less effective defense. With a nod to theology, this phenomenon was labeled “original antigenic sin.”Today, in the face of the pandemic H1N1 flu virus, many countries are preparing to launch H1N1 vaccination campaigns this fall. Millions of people are in groups recommended to receive both seasonal flu immunizations and H1N1 vaccinations. Seasonal flu vaccine—which contains an H1N1 component, distantly related to the novel H1N1 virus—will be available sooner in most places.This timing has caused some observers to wonder: If a person gets a seasonal flu shot and then an H1N1 dose a few weeks later, will original antigenic sin come into play and cause a poor response to the H1N1 vaccine?Nobody knows the answer for sure, but leading flu and immunization experts say they aren’t especially worried at this point. At the same time, they suggest the possibility bears watching.”For the time being there is no cause for worry especially for vaccines because the influenza vaccines are really . . . very well known in terms of the seasonal use of these,” said Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, director of the World Health Organization’s Initiative for Vaccine Research, in a recent news briefing.But there is enough concern so that the H1N1 vaccine clinical trials recently announced by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) will look into the question. Two of the trials will examine whether giving an H1N1 vaccine and seasonal flu vaccine sequentially or simultaneously affects the immune response to either vaccine, according to the NIAID’s descriptions of the trials.Study raises issue anewA study published recently by the Journal of Immunology raised anew the question of original antigenic sin. Saying that some recent studies have raised doubts about the existence of the phenomenon, scientists at the Emory University Vaccine Center in Atlanta used three different approaches to look for evidence of original antigenic sin in mice. They found evidence of it under certain conditions.The scientists used two human H1N1 viruses, labeled PR8 and FM1, that emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. They sequentially immunized mice with conventional vaccines using inactivated viruses, and they immunized other mice with DNA vaccines that encoded the hemagglutinin proteins from the two strains. In a third experiment, they sequentially exposed mice to the live viruses. The interval between the two inoculations in most cases was 1 month.In the mice sequentially immunized with conventional vaccines, the team found minimal differences in antibody responses to the two strains. However, when the mice were then challenged with a high dose of the FM1 virus, the virus multiplied in their lungs far more than it did in the lungs of control mice that had received only the FM1 vaccine.When mice were sequentially immunized with the DNA vaccines, the team found that the antibody response to the FM1 vaccine was oriented to the PR8 (original) vaccine, and antibodies to the FM1 strain were reduced, according to the report.However, the original antigenic sin effect was much stronger in the mice that were infected with the two live viruses. “Sequential infection with live viruses generated severely reduced neutralization Ab [antibody] responses and compromised memory responses to the second virus,” the report states. The authors suggest that this phenomenon helps explain the success and prevalence of flu viruses: when they mutate, the host immune system is fooled into responding to the predecessor strain instead of the mutated one.Antigenic distance is keyOn the other hand, original antigenic sin occurs only when the new strain is closely related to one the host has seen before, the scientists write. It is not known exactly how much antigenic similarity (likeness in the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin protein of the two strains) between the two strains is necessary to fool the immune system, but past studies have shown that antigenically distant or dissimilar strains fail to trigger original antigenic sin.That finding seems to suggest that original antigenic sin would not be induced by a novel H1N1 immunization soon after getting a seasonal flu vaccine, as the new virus is not considered a close relative of the H1N1 strain in the seasonal vaccine.In fact, that’s the view of Robert G. Webster, PhD, a highly respected virologist and flu expert who did some of the original research on original antigenic sin decades ago. He is based at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis.”The antigenic distance between the seasonal H1N1 and swine flu is very large, so I don’t think original antigenic sin is going to be a problem,” Webster said in a recent interview.He said that even if the phenomenon did arise, it might be possible to overcome it by using one of the newer vaccine adjuvants or by increasing the dose of vaccine. “With a larger dose, you can negate the original sin by sort of flooding the receptors with sufficient antigen to negate it,” he said.Jin H. Kim, PhD, a postdoctoral research associate at Emory and the lead author of the recent study, said the type of vaccine is important. He noted his finding that original antigenic sin was minimal when inactivated virus vaccines were used. Similarly, he said by e-mail, two recent studies found little evidence of original antigenic sin when humans received an inactivated vaccine against one seasonal flu strain and later were vaccinated against a drifted variant of that strain.What about live-virus vaccines?However, the finding that sequential exposure to live viruses invoked a greatly reduced response to the second virus raises the question whether the use of live attenuated vaccines for seasonal flu and the novel virus could lead to a similar response, Kim noted by e-mail. MedImmune, maker of the live attenuated seasonal vaccine FluMist, is also making a live version of novel H1N1 vaccine.”It is [an] intriguing question whether the live attenuated vaccines would induce original antigenic sin,” Kim said. “Our data show that sequential infection with related H1N1 viruses causes significant original antigenic sin and dampens the development of protective immunity. Therefore, it is possible that live attenuated swine origin H1N1 virus vaccine may behave similarly. However, it is important to note that we have not tested this in humans, thus this would be an immature conclusion at this point.” What if seasonal flu and novel H1N1 immunizations are given at the same time? John Treanor, MD, a vaccine researcher at the University of Rochester, said interference between the two vaccines is not likely to be a problem.He noted that the seasonal vaccine itself normally contains three different strains of flu virus, and interference isn’t a big concern. “In the absence of data, it’s hard to be completely confident about the potential for interference when the seasonal vaccine is given at the same time as the H1N1 vaccine, but I think the hypothesis is that there will not be interference between components,” he said.Treanor commented that when two vaccines must be given in sequence rather than simultaneously, his view is that they should be separated by at least 2 weeks, mainly to prevent any confusion about attributing side effects. Cautioning that he is not an expert on original antigenic sin, he added, “I do not know if there is really any data that would suggest that such a schedule would or would not result in a decrease in the response to the novel H1N1 (or who knows, maybe an increase),” he said.For Webster, original antigenic sin is only a minor concern in the current situation with regard to H1N1 vaccination.”At the moment it’s not a big issue, in my opinion,” he said. “It’s something we have at the back of our minds that we’ll watch for. The new H1N1 is antigenically stable, vastly different from the seasonal H1N1, and we need to have vaccine for it wiki-wiki [very fast].”See also: Kim JH, Skountzou I, Compans R, et al. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses. J Immunol 2009 (early online publication Jul 31) [Abstract]Transcript of Aug 6 WHO news briefinghttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/pandemic_h1n1_presstranscript_2009_08_06.pdfDescription of NIAID-sponsored trial examining sequential and simultaneous immunization of adults with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines from Sanofi Pasteurhttp://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00943878Description of NIAID-sponsored trial examining sequential and simultaneous immunization of children with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines from Sanofi Pasteurhttp://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00943202